What is Dialysis Water and Why it is So Important to Test?

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What is Dialysis Water and Why it is So Important to Test?

What is dialysis water?

Dialysis fluids are electrolyte solutions with concentrations that are close to extracellular fluid or plasma. They contain, or may contain:

  • Sodium
  • Chloride
  • bicarbonate or lactate
  • Calcium
  • Magnesium
  • Potassium
  • Glucose
  • amino acids
  • icodextrin

Dialysis fluids are solutions created by proportional dilution devices built into the dialysis system (on-line production) or by combining concentrated electrolytic solutions or powdered salts with appropriately pre-treated municipal water (off-line production).

How does a dialysis water system work?

The kidney’s physiological principles are replicated in the hemodialysis procedure. Diffusion, in which blood is forced to flow in the opposite direction of the dialysis fluid, and ultrafiltration, in which fluid is forced through a semipermeable membrane using convective force.

To safely perform a dialysis operation, a large quantity of high purity dialysis water is needed. Single 4-hour dialysis treatment can use up to 150L of “ultra-pure” dialysis water. Producing this high-quality water is a multi-step filtration method that necessitates many stages of processing before it can be presented to the dialyzer membrane and the patient’s blood.

What is the importance of dialysis water testing?

Municipal water contains a broad range of chemical and microbial pollutants. Hemodialysis, a medical procedure in which dialysis water is transferred into the bodies of patients who have temporarily or permanently lost kidney function, uses dialysis water. It keeps body fluids in check by controlling the pH of the patient’s body. Hemodialysis can save a patient’s life, but if the treated water is infected, it can cause problems by activating monocytes in the patient’s bloodstream due to the passage of bacterial products such as endotoxins, peptidoglycans, or fragments through dialysis membranes.

Dialysis patients are exposed to almost 30 times more water, necessitating water quality testing to prevent unknown or suspected harmful elements from being carried in the water and transferred to the patient. As a result, it’s important to get the dialysis water testing done for quality assurance in accordance with the health department’s standards and guidelines.

AAMI standards are mostly considered for dialysis water testing that helps in addressing:

  • Purification devices and processes for the preparation of concentrates and dialysate, as well as the reprocessing of dialyzers for various uses.
  • The apparatus for storing and distributing this water.
  • Water pollutants, bacterial cell counts, and endotoxins have permissible and action threshold amounts. 

How is Dialysis water testing done?

In the preparation of dialysis fluid, superior-quality water is used. It is a requirement for hemodialysis and associated treatments. International standards have been established to encourage the construction of appropriate water treatment facilities for hemodialysis and to ensure the production of dialysis water suitable for use in hemodialysis on a regular basis.

The water first passes through a multimedia filter, then two carbon tank filters. We now need to determine if the water is soft or not, so it is filtered through a water softener. Last but not least, it is filtered into a RO method. After that, it’s taken to the dialysate prep region, where bicarb pH is applied. It is then sent to the Dialyzer storeroom.

Sigma Test and Research Centre conducts appropriate tests to ensure that temperature levels and chemical compositions such as chlorine, magnesium, and calcium are appropriate. To achieve the desired result, techniques such as carbon filtration, water softening, and reverse osmosis are used. Our experts work in accordance with the Association for Advancement of Medical Instrumentation’s (AAMI) standards.

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