Techniques that separate and arrange according to size, ferrous wear particles from a lubricant for analysis with a microscope. The Ferro gram provides information for the identification of wear particle types and a description of the wear mode that generates the particles.
Viscosity is one of the most important properties of a lubricant as it determines both the film thickness of the oil and how readily the lubricant will flow into the narrow area separating the moving metal parts.
The primary use of this method is for viscous materials (excluding fuels) having flashpoints of 79°C and above. This test determines the temperature at which the oil will form a flammable mixture with air. The flashpoint can be compared with specification standards to determine if the oil meets the specification. It is often used as an indicator of fuel dilution.
The fire point is a measure of the tendency of the oil to support combustion.
The cloud point defines the temperature at which wax crystals appear in the fuel upon cooling. The cloud point of fuel and its impact on cold flow properties should be monitored to ensure trouble-free operation in a cold climate.
Density is a fundamental physical property that can be used in conjunction with other properties to characterize both the light and heavy fractions of petroleum and petroleum products. Determination of the density or relative density of petroleum and its products is necessary for the conversion of measured volumes to volumes at the standard temperature of 15°C.
This test helps in determining the lowest temperature at which movement of the fuel is observed. The pour point of a petroleum product is an index of the lowest temperature of use for certain applications.
This test helps in determining the amount of carbon residue left after evaporation of oil and to indicate relative coke-forming propensities. This test method is generally applicable to relatively nonvolatile petroleum products, which partially decompose on distillation under atmospheric pressure.
This test helps in determining the volumetric percentage of water and sediments in middle distillate fuels. Water and sediments in fuel oil can cause fouling of the fuel-handling facilities, obstruct fuel flow and cause internal corrosion.
This test helps in determining the acidic or basic constituents in petroleum products and lubricants soluble or nearly soluble in mixtures of toluene and isopropyl alcohol.
This test helps in determining the number of basic substances in the oil always under the testing conditions. It is sometimes used as a measure of lubricant degradation in service. However, any condemning limit shall be empirically established.
This test helps in determining the value that expresses the weight in milligrams of an alkali needed to neutralize the acidic material in one gram of oil. The neutralization number of oil gives an indication of its acidity.
This test helps in the instrumental determination of sulphur content in samples of carbon black feedstock oils. Values obtained represent the total sulphur content.
This test helps in determining the atmospheric distillation of petroleum products using a laboratory batch distillation unit, to determine quantitatively the boiling range characteristics of such products, as light and middle distillates, automotive spark-ignition engine fuels with or without oxygenates, aviation types of gasoline, aviation turbine fuels, diesel fuels, biodiesel blend up to 20 %, marine fuels, special petroleum spirits, naphthas, white spirits, kerosene, and Grade 1 and 2 burner fuels.
This test helps in determining the characterization of pure hydrocarbons and in the analysis of hydrocarbon mixtures. These test methods cover the determination of the aniline point of petroleum products and hydrocarbon solvents.
This test helps in determining the measure of a fuel’s ignition delay; the time period between the start of injection and the first identifiable pressure increases during the combustion of fuel. In a particular diesel engine, higher cetane fuels will have shorter ignition delay periods than lower cetane fuels.
This test helps in determining the corrosiveness of fuels and oils to copper. The test is designed to assess the relative degree of corrosion of a petroleum product.
This test helps in determining the expensive damage and downtime to high-value engines, gears, generators, turbines and other important equipment. Early detection of wear metals in lubricants can improve machinery reliability, especially if done as part of a professional oil condition monitoring program.