Chloride Content:

The effect of chloride concentration in soil on corrosion of reinforcing steel was measured through  corrosion potential and corrosion current density.

Concrete in contact with soil bearing high levels of chloride could suffer from early ingress of chloride, leading to corrosion of any embedded reinforcement. Measures of chloride levels in soils are often taken to check whether the soil will be suitable for use in being adjacent to concrete.

Test Method: IS: 4032-1985 

Insitu Electrical Resistivity test :

Electrical resistivity of the soil can be considered as a proxy for the spatial and temporal variability of many other soil physical properties (i.e. structure, water content, or fluid composition). Because the method is sensitive and non-destructive, it offers a useful tool for specifying the subsurface properties without digging.

Test Method: IS: 15736-2007 

Modified Proctor Compaction Test:

The Proctor compaction test is a laboratory method of experimentally determining the optimal moisture content at which a given soil type will become most dense and achieve its maximum dry density.

 Test Method: IS: 2720 (P-3,7)1980 

Linear Shrinkage:

This test is used to measure the percentage decrease in dimension of a fine fraction of a soil when it is dried after having been moulded in a wet condition approximately at its liquid limit.

Test Method: IS: 2720 (P-6) 1972 

Organic Matter Content:

Organic matter is stable in the soil.They are exposed to decompose until they are  resistant to further decomposition. Usually, only about 5 percent of it mineralizes yearly. That rate increases if moisture, oxygen and temperature conditions become favorable for decomposition, which often appears with excessive tillage. In the Soil Test,  it is the stable organic matter that is analyzed.

 Test Method: IS: 2720 (P-22)1972 

Particle Size Distribution by Sieve Analysis:

The objective of this test is to determine the relative proportions of different granular sizes as they pass through a specific sieve size. Thus, the percentage of gravel, clay, silt and  sand can be extracted from the sieve analysis test.

 The sieve analysis (grain size analysis) is widely used in classification of soils. The data obtained from grain size distribution curves is used in the design of filters of earth dams and to determine suitability of soil for road/highway construction, embankment fill of dam, airport runway/taxiway, etc.

 Test Method: IS: 2720 (P-4)1985 

Particle Size Distribution by Hydrometer:

Hydrometer test is the procedure generally adopted for determining the particle-size distribution in the soil for the fraction for that is finer than sieve size 0.075 mm. The lower limit of the particle size is determined by this procedure is about 0.001 mm.

 Test Method: 

Plasticity Index:

The Plasticity Index is simply the numerical difference between the liquid limit and the plastic limit for a particular material and indicates the magnitude of the range of moisture content where the soil remains plastic. It is a measure of the cohesive qualities of the binder resulting from the clay content. Also, it gives some indication of the amount of swelling and shrinkage that will result in the wetting and drying of the fraction tested.

 Test Method: IS: 2720 (P-5)1985 

Sulphate Content:

This method determines the soluble sulfate content of soil by using turbidimetric techniques. The results are used to determine whether chemical stabilization (with lime, fly ash, cement kiln dust, etc.) of the tested soil is appropriate.

 Test Method: IS: 2720 (P-27)1977 


As the requirement for land for housing, retail, office and industrial development continues to grow, there is a real need for developers to use sites previously used for industrial purposes (Brownfield sites). These sites may not have been subject to the rigorous environmental legislation that applies today, resulting in the possibility of various levels of contamination. It is therefore important to conduct a contaminated land survey for such sites. 

  • Desktop study including previous uses
  • Visual inspection of the site
  • Assessing the site’s geology and hydrology
  • Carrying out sampling in accordance with methods agreed with the client
  • Laboratory analysis of the samples


Load Bearing Capacity: This test helps in determining the maximum load the soil can withstand.

 Test Method: Shear Strength: This test helps in determining the magnitude of the shear stress that a soil can sustain. The shear resistance of soil is an outcome of cementation, interlocking and friction of particles.

 Test Method: ASTM D3080 Dynamic Core Penetration Test: This test helps in determining the compactness of the sub soil layer without making a bore hole. The data obtained by the test provides a continuous record of soil resistance. This is an in-situ dynamic penetration test designed to provide information on the geotechnical engineering properties of soil.

 Test Method: BS EN ISO 22476-3 / ASTM D1586 / AS 1289.6.3.1 Triaxial Compression Test: This test helps in determining the shear testing of soils.

 Test Method: ASTM D4767 – 11 / D2850 Plate Bearing: In the design of shallow foundation or traffic surface, design engineers need to know the bearing capacity of soil underneath. To serve this purpose, plate bearing test is carried out in the field. Results from the test can be used to design parameter or confirm the design of assumption.

 Test Method: BS 1377 Part 9: 1990 Standards.


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